Are You an Apostolic Pentecostal Catholic?

Pentecost Sunday

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If you live in America, especially here in the south, you probably associate the words “Apostolic” and “Pentecostal” with one of the evangelical Protestant denominations that use those words in their names. You probably don’t immediately think of the Catholic Church. But you should.

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Who is the Holy Spirit?

Pentecost Sunday (A)

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I have found in my time as a Christian that the Holy Spirit can be notoriously hard to talk about. It is relatively easy for us to talk about God the Father. We have an image of fatherhood from our human fathers. We understand God as the creator, the first cause, the maker of all the universe. It is also fairly easy for us to talk about God the Son. The Son has a human face. We can read about the life and teachings of Jesus in the gospels. Of course we cannot fully comprehend the mysteries of the Father and the Son, but these concrete images help give us a place to start.
But how do we think about the Spirit? The scriptures give us different images of the Holy Spirit, all rather ephemeral. At Pentecost the Spirit manifests as tongues of fire. He is described as a “mighty wind.” At Jesus’ baptism He appears as a dove. In the Old Testament, the Spirit is the personification of Wisdom. The word spirit literally means “breath,” and so in our gospel reading for the feast of Pentecost we see Jesus breathing on the Apostles and saying, “Receive the Holy Spirit” (Jn 20:23). Breath, wind, fire, a dove — these images all convey movement. They refuse to be contained. None of them convey “personhood” in our way of thinking.
In a way it is understandable that we have such a hard time thinking about the Spirit. But it shouldn’t be this way. After all, we are spiritual beings. Yes, we have physical bodies, like the animals. But we are more than our bodies. We are body and soul. There is a spiritual aspect to our existence that we share in common with the angels, and yes, even with God. 
We tend to be much more aware of our bodies than our souls. We can look down and see our hands and our feet. We can touch our skin and feel our muscles. By contrast, it’s relatively easy for us to forget about our souls. Yet our souls are vitally important. Remove the soul from the body and it becomes a corpse.
It is easier for us to forget about our soul not because it’s any less a part of us than our bodies, but because it is so much a part of us. Our soul is the center of who we are. It’s hard for us to be aware of our soul for the same reason that it’s hard for us to see our eye. You can’t see your eye, because your eye is what does the seeing. Your soul is what makes you aware. It’s too close, too near, too intimate to allow for objective perspective.
In our lives as Christians, we can sometimes take the Holy Spirit for granted, as He functions in the Church the way the soul functions in the body. He’s too near. But, like the soul, the Spirit is absolutely vital to the life of the Church. If the Spirit were to withdraw from the Church for one fraction of a moment, the Church would cease to exist. It would became a body without a soul, a lifeless corpse.
The Feast of Pentecost is an opportunity to remind ourselves of just how the Spirit functions in the Church and within us as individual Christians. First we can ask the basic question: what is the Holy Spirit?
Jesus Christ, the Son of God, is also called the Word or the Image of God. The Son is God’s perfect Image of Himself, and so He proceeds from the Father by the Divine Intellect. And what do the Father and the Son do? They love one another. (Love is an act of the will. It is not something one feels but rather something one does.) This Love that proceeds from the Father and the Son by the Divine Will is the Holy Spirit. Just as Jesus is God’s Word and the Image of God, the Holy Spirit is God’s Will and the Love of God.
Because we are made in the image of God, we also possess the divine qualities of rational intellect and free will. To use these faculties properly means that we must learn to think and to love as God does. We learn to think as God does by thinking in union with Christ, and we learn to love as God loves by cooperating with the Spirit. This is why the Spirit was sent to us, so that we might love like God. St. Paul says, “God’s love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit who has been given to us” (Rom 5:5).
The first thing that God’s Love does is offer forgiveness. Our sins keep us from being like God. They stand in the way of our holiness. If we are to love like God, we must first be freed from our sins. So Jesus gives the Apostles the Spirit so that they can carry out this vital work of forgiveness and reconciliation. “Receive the Holy Spirit,” He tells them, “Whose sins you forgive are forgiven them, and whose sins you retain are retained” (Jn 20:23). We participate in this forgiveness first through our baptism, and subsequently through the sacrament of reconciliation (confession), by the power of the Holy Spirit still at work in the Church.
Having been freed from our sins, the Spirit is then able to help us grow more and more in accord with the image of God. This is manifested through what we call the “fruits” of the Holy Spirit: love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness and self-control (Gal 5:22-23). These are not things that we do but rather things that the Spirit does for us. If we cooperate with God’s grace by avoiding sin, obeying the commandments, and pursuing love of God and neighbor, we will experience these things in our lives.
The Spirit is what unites us to God. He is what binds us together as members of Christ’s Body. He makes it possible for us to become holy. We cannot do this on our own, so the Spirit provides us with divine strength. St. Paul says, “The Spirit helps us in our weakness; for we do not know how to pray as we ought, but the Spirit Himself intercedes with sighs too deep for words” (Rom 8;26). 
Finally, the Spirit also makes it possible for us to participate in Christ’s mission. As I have mentioned many times previously, we are all called to be evangelizers. The Spirit gives us the power to be Christ’s witnesses in the world. We see this in the Pentecost reading from Acts 2:1-11, when the Apostles are transformed by the Holy Spirit from fearfully hiding behind locked doors to openly and boldly proclaiming the good news of Christ.
We may not be able to speak in tongues, like the Apostles did on that first Pentecost. The gifts of the Holy Spirit are manifested in different ways to different people, in different times and places, according to God’s plan. But the Spirit is the same. The Holy Spirit that descended upon the Apostles at Pentecost is the same Holy Spirit that gives life to the Church today.  It is the same Holy Spirit that each one of us has received (or will receive) at our confirmation. The same Spirit unites us to the same God, makes us sharers in the same Love, and gives us the power to fulfill the same mission — that of reconciling a fallen world to its Maker. Let us strive always to remain in the Spirit, and do our part in carrying out His work of salvation.
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The Holy Spirit: Intimate & Mysterious

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Imagine the Holy Spirit.  It’s hard to do, isn’t it? The Third Person of the Holy Trinity defies our attempts to hold a picture of Him in our minds. With the Father and the Son it is relatively easy. Even though we know that God the Father really isn’t a bearded old man sitting above the clouds, we know what “fatherhood” is.  We can relate to that image of God.  God the Son became Incarnate and dwelt among us. Images of Jesus abound in our faith  He is the perfect Image of God.

But what about the Holy Spirit?  How are we to envision Him?  As a dove?  A breath? Tongues of flame?  A mighty wind?  Even though they each tell us something true about the Spirit, none of these images seem “personal” to us.  It is no wonder so few of us “get” the Holy Spirit.  The Spirit, like the wind, the flame, or a bird in flight, is elusive.  He cannot be confined by our imaginations.  You cannot cage the wind.

Yet the Holy Spirit is not entirely beyond our grasp.  The Catechism of the Catholic Church identifies eight ways in which we can know the Holy Spirit (CCC 688):

  1. In Sacred Scriptures.
  2. In Sacred Tradition.
  3. In the Magisterium.
  4. In the liturgy & sacraments.
  5. In prayer.
  6. In the charisms and ministries of the Church.
  7. In apostolic and missionary life.
  8. In the witness of saints.
All of these ways to know the Spirit are found in the Catholic Church.  The descent of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost has traditionally been considered the birthday of the Church.  Just as God gave life to Adam by breathing His Spirit into him (Gen 2:7), God gives life to the Church with the breath of His Spirit. The Church is the Body of Christ, and just as our bodies have souls, the Holy Spirit is the soul of the Church.
Ironically, even though the Holy Spirit is the most enigmatic of the three Persons of the Trinity, He is the one with whom we have the most intimate relationship. 
Jesus speaks of the Holy Spirit as the “Paraclete” or “Advocate.”  These words both mean “he who is called to one’s side” (CCC 692).  The Holy Spirit stands at our side throughout our lives as Christians, consoling us, sanctifying us, and leading us into the light of truth.  This is, not coincidentally, also what the Church is called to do.  This is because “the mission of the Christ and the Holy Spirit is brought to completion in the Church” (CCC 737).  
Perhaps we can say that the Church is the image of the Holy Spirit, just as our bodies are the image of our souls.  We cannot separate the work of the Spirit from the work of the Church.
The best place, then, for us to come to know the Spirit of God better is within the Church, by participating fully in the sacramental life she makes available to us.  The sacraments, by their very nature, are established by Christ to bring us closer to the Father through the power of the Holy Spirit.  
The goal of the spiritual life is to grow closer to God.  The Holy Spirit is God, as we profess in our creed: He is the Lord, the giver of Life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son.  With the Father and the Son He is adored and glorified.  We can come to God only through the power of the Holy Spirit.
One of the most venerable prayers offered to the Holy Spirit is this: Come, Holy Spirit, fill the hearts of Your faithful, and kindle in them the fire of Your love.  Let us invite the Holy Spirit anew into our hearts this day.  Let us cooperate with His grace, and allow His love to infuse our wills so that we may be drawn by the Spirit into eternal union with the Triune God.
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Gospel For Today – Pentecost


When the time for Pentecost was fulfilled, they were all in one place together. And suddenly there came from the sky a noise like a strong driving wind, and it filled the entire house in which they were. Then there appeared to them tongues as of fire, which parted and came to rest on each one of them. And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in different tongues, as the Spirit enabled them to proclaim (Acts 2:1-4).

Today we celebrate Pentecost Sunday, considered the “birthday” of the Church.  It is the day on which the Holy Spirit descended upon the Apostles, fulfilling the promise made by Jesus we heard last Sunday.  “[Y]ou will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes upon you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, throughout Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth” (Acts 1:8).  Immediately after the descent of the Spirit, the Apostles get about fulfilling their mandate.  They preach the gospel of Jesus Christ and draw in converts to the Church right there in Jerusalem.  In the rest of the book of Acts we see them doing the same in Judea and Samaria, and even as far away as Rome.  That fulfilling of Christ’s mandate continues today as the Church ever vigilantly proclaims the good news of Jesus to the ends of the earth.
Pentecost Sunday is one of the high points of the Church year, but it is not like some of the other major celebrations on our calendar.  At Christmas, for example, Christmas Day is only the beginning of the celebration.  We celebrate Christmas Day for eight full days, called the Octave of Christmas.  This is followed by the whole Christmas season running through the feast of the Baptism of the Lord.  Easter is also celebrated with an octave, and we just concluded the long Easter season which lasts for seven weeks.  But there is no Octave of Pentecost.  There is no Pentecost Season.  Instead, tomorrow will be celebrated on the Church calendar as “Monday of the Eighth Week in Ordinary Time.”  
Ordinary time seems so anticlimactic.  We call it “Ordinary Time” because the Sundays in this season are named after ordinal numbers (first, second, third and so forth).  But the word “ordinary,” to most of us, also means plain, mundane, or hum-drum.  Certainly nothing exciting.  But I say it is rather fitting that Pentecost should be followed immediately by Ordinary Time, for it is immediately after Pentecost that we find the Apostles getting on with the ordinary business of the Church — making disciples and bringing souls to Christ.  And there is nothing hum-drum about that.  The coming of the Holy Spirit redefines “ordinary” for the Church.  And it should redefine ordinary for you and I, as well.
Ever since that first Pentecost we have been living in the Season of the Holy Spirit.  Each of us who has received the Sacrament of Confirmation has had the Holy Spirit descent upon us.  Confirmation is like our own personal Pentecost.  We personally receive the Holy Spirit, but its effects are intended to be anything but personal.  Christ promised the Apostles that they would receive power, but it was not to be a self-promoting power.  It was the power needed to serve God and to serve others by being witnesses to Him.  The Apostles receive the power to speak in tongues, not for their own good but to enable them to preach the gospel to others.
One of the options for today’s gospel reading is Jn 20-19-23, wherein Christ breathes on the Apostles and says, “Receive the Holy Spirit. Whose sins you forgive are forgiven them.”  Again we see the Apostles being given a power of the Spirit not for their own good, but for the good of the Church so that they may reconcile others to God.
Just as the Spirit gave power to the Apostles, so does each Christian receive special power upon their Confirmation.  We receive the gifts of the Holy Spirit: wisdom, understanding, counsel, fortitude, knowledge, piety and fear of the Lord.  While these are all good qualities in their own right, the primary purpose of each of these is to better enable us to serve God and serve others.  And consider these words from the Catechism.  Confirmation “gives us a special strength of the Holy Spirit to spread and defend the faith by word and action as true witnesses of Christ, to confess the name of Christ boldly, and never to be ashamed of the Cross” (CCC 1303).  As St. Thomas Aquinas puts it, “the confirmed person receives the power to profess faith in Christ publicly” (Summa Theolgica III, 72, 5, ad 2).    
Receiving special strength and unusual power sounds like something from a comic book superhero story, but that is precisely what the Holy Spirit offers us at our Confirmation.  Yet how many of us (and maybe this is true of yourself), view our Confirmation as a graduation allowing us to move on with our “ordinary” life?  But as we see with the Apostles, the Holy Spirit has a way of redefining ordinary.  The ordinary life of the Confirmed Christian is to be a life serving God and one another, using the particular gifts the Spirit gives us to advance God’s Kingdom.
The fact that many look upon Confirmation as the end of their Christian formation, rather than the beginning of their Christian mission, is why some bishops in the Western Church are working to restore the original order of the Sacraments of Initiation — Baptism, Confirmation, and then first Eucharist — an order always maintained in the Eastern Church.  (Dioceses in the US in which Confirmation is celebrated at a much younger age include PhoenixHonolulu, and now Denver).
It is never too late to start putting the gifts you received from the Holy Spirit at Confirmation into action.  May this Pentecost be the day you begin seeing your “ordinary” life in the light of the Holy Spirit.  Christ has given you your mission.  The Spirit has given you the power to fulfill it.  Let’s get to work.
Recall then that you have received the spiritual seal, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of right judgment and courage, the spirit of knowledge and reverence, the spirit of holy fear in God’s presence.  Guard what you have received.  God the Father has marked you with His sign; Christ the Lord has confirmed you and has placed His pledge, the Spirit, in your hearts.  –St. Ambrose

WCU Catholic Campus Ministry
Matthew Newsome, MTh, campus minister
(828)293-9374  |   POB 2766, Cullowhee NC 28723

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Gospel For Today: Pentecost


Today we celebrate the great solemnity of Pentecost, the day on which the Holy Spirit descended upon the Apostles with “a mighty wind” and “tongues of fire.”  This day is often celebrated as a new beginning, the “birthday of the Church,” marking the start of a new age, the age of the Spirit.  While all of this is true, in many ways the day of Pentecost is also a completion or fulfillment of so much that came before.

The feast of Pentecost itself dates back long before the birth of the Church.  After all, as it says in our reading this morning from Acts, the very reason the Apostles and so many other Jewish people from all over the Mediterranean world were gathered in Jerusalem at this time was to celebrate the feast of Pentecost.   It was a spring harvest festival celebrated by the Jews fifty days (hence the name pentecost) after the Passover.  During the festival, bread made from the first spring harvest of grain was offered as first fruits to the Lord.  But more than this, the Jewish feast of Pentecost marked the giving of the Law to Moses on Mt. Sinai (Ex 19-20).  So on this great feast when Jewish people from all over the world were gathered together to celebrate God’s gift of the Law to His people, God once again gives His Law, the Law of the Spirit, to His new people, the Church.  It is a completion and fulfillment of what came before.
And what were the effects of this gift of the Holy Spirit?  Many things, but one of which was the gift of speaking in tongues.  Our reading from Acts this morning says that when the Apostles began preaching to the gathered crowds, who came from many different countries and spoke many different languages, each person heard them preaching in their own native tongue.  This gift of the Holy Spirit is also a completion, this time in the sense of being a remedy.  It recalls the episode of the tower of Babel (Gen 11:1-9).  This account describes how mankind, united in one language, built a great tower which reached to the heavens.  To keep them from accomplishing too much too fast, God destroyed the tower and confused their language, scattering them to the different corners of the earth. 
This is how the Jewish people understood the reason for there being so many different languages spoken by man.  But in Pentecost we see the undoing of this.  Instead of confusion, what we see with the coming of the Holy Spirit is the gift of understanding.  In the Genesis account of the tower of Babel, God says there is nothing the people could not accomplish with the understanding that comes from a common tongue (Gen 11:6).  Truly, under the common language of the Spirit, there is now nothing we cannot achieve with God’s help — including our own salvation.
And finally we have in our gospel reading today another example of how Pentecost marks a completion.  Pentecost is regarded as the arrival of the Holy Spirit, but our gospel reading reminds us that the Spirit was active in the world long before that day.  This reading from John takes place on the evening of Easter Sunday, just after the Apostles have first seen the risen Christ.  Jesus breathes on them (spirit means “breath) and says, “Receive the Holy Spirit.  Whose sins you forgive are forgiven them; whose sins you retain are retained.”  This power to forgive sins, realized in the Sacrament of Reconciliation, is made possible through the Holy Spirit.  This reading appears here in our liturgical celebration to show us how Pentecost is a completion of Easter Sunday, which is why today marks the end of the Easter Season.
In considering the various ways that Pentecost represents a fulfillment or completion, I cannot help but consider what many call the Sacrament of the Spirit, confirmation.  The Holy Spirit is often called the mysterious Person of of the Holy Trinity, and not without reason.  The Spirit is hard for us to imagine.  For God the Father, we have the image of earthly fathers, with which we all are familiar, to assist our imagination.  For God the Son we have the human face of Jesus Christ to envision.  But for God the Spirit we have metaphors.  We have fire, a dove, or a mighty wind.  These are all symbols of the Spirit, but hard for us to imagine as a Person.  And so the Spirit is mysterious, which seems fitting.
At the same time, though, it is somewhat of a shame that the Spirit is considered so shrouded in mystery by most Christians, because of the three Persons of the Holy Trinity, the Spirit ought to be most active in our lives.  It is the Spirit that is the animating soul of the Body of Christ, the Church — a Body of which all the baptized are members.  It is the Spirit that makes our lives as Christians possible, uniting us to the Father, through the Son.  So the Spirit, while being mysterious, ought not be unfamiliar.  If He is, perhaps we are not paying attention.
Likewise, because the sacrament of confirmation is called the “Sacrament of the Spirit,” we consider is the “mysterious sacrament.”  I have heard many catechists struggle to explain to those preparing for the confirmation just what the sacrament is for, and what it achieves in us.  “You receive the Holy Spirit,” they are taught.  But didn’t I receive the Holy Spirit when I was baptized?  “Confirmation completes baptism,” they are taught.  Do you mean to say my baptism was incomplete?  Was it lacking in some way?  Any confusion in people’s minds is understandable.
Those who are confirmed do receive the Spirit, and this does complete and seal the graces received at baptism.  But this does not mean the previous baptism was ineffective any more than Jesus’ gift of the Spirit to the Apostles on Easter Sunday, from today’s gospel reading, was ineffective.  The Apostles had the authority to forgive sins.  But the descent of the Spirit upon them at Pentecost gave them the tools needed to put that gift into action.  And this is what we see immediately after the Spirit comes to them — a Church in action, with the Apostles preaching the gospel fearlessly and receiving people into the Church.
Likewise, confirmation gives us the tools we need to put the graces of baptism into action.  The Catechism teaches us that confirmation completes baptismal grace and obligates us to spread and defend the faith by both word and deed (CCC 1285).  What’s more, the sacrament gives us the strength to fulfill that obligation.  Confirmation “gives us a special strength of the Holy Spirit to spread and defend the faith by word and action as true witnesses of Christ, to confess the name of Christ boldly, and never to be ashamed of the Cross” (CCC 1303, quoting the Council of Florence, 1439 AD).  
The Apostles received this power in a very radical and particular way on the day of Pentecost, at the very beginning of the Church.  But you who are confirmed share in this same power.  However, we must be mindful that gift does not take away free will.  The Apostles had to choose to put that power into action, and you and I have the same choice today.  The gifts we are given do not bear fruit automatically.  We have to cultivate them and put them into action.
As we complete the season of Easter today, we recall how Easter Sunday and Pentecost are bound together, one flowing into another.  Just as our baptism unites us to the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ, the Paschal mysteries of Easter, we can think of our confirmation as uniting us to the gift of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost, the divine gift that completed the Easter miracle.  Those of you who have been confirmed possess this gift already.  Those preparing for confirmation live in the hope of receiving it.  It belongs to you to put this gift into action.  Spread the good news of Jesus Christ.  Defend the faith, giving a reason for the sure hope that is within you (1 Pt 3:15).  Do this by word and by deed.  You have this power.  God has given it to you in the Spirit.  Go put this power into action and set the world on fire.
Recall then that you have received the spiritual seal, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of right judgment and courage, the spirit of knowledge and reverence, the spirit of holy fear in God’s presence.  Guard what you have received.  God the Father has marked you with His sign; Christ the Lord has confirmed you and has placed His pledge, the Spirit, in your hearts.   — St. Ambrose (340-397 AD)

WCU Catholic Campus Ministry
Matthew Newsome, MTh, campus minister
(828)293-9374  |   POB 2766, Cullowhee NC 28723

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